Top 10 Major Problems in India

India is among the third largest, fastest-growing democracies in the world. However, there are substantial everyday problems in India. For our economy to progress further, it is crucial to focus on these issues. One of the major problems in India is its Population Density. It puts immense pressure on vital resources such as water and land. Although there are many challenges to deal with here, we have focused on some of the top 10 major problems in India in 2024.

1. Population


Among the few problems in India, one common challenge is to keep a check on population density. Today, India’s population has increased to 1.44 billion and will rise rapidly. Data shows how India’s population has increased yearly by 13 million (+0.9 per cent) between early 2023  and the onset of 2024. As per the census, 48.4 per cent are female, and the rest 51.6 per cent are male. As per reports, the population will increase at a growth rate of 1.58%, accounting for more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030. India sees 33 births a minute, 2,000 an hour, and 48,000 a day. It has led to a crisis in the availability of resources and may put India in debt, leading to significant destruction.

2. Unemployment


Unemployment is another major social problem in India. This problem still pertains. Lack of employment has led to no source of Income. Many are into meager jobs like pottery, tailoring, farming and wage labourers. These people usually earn less. These are a few problems in India that few startups can solve, like starting small-scale industries, factories or handlooms. Here, low-income people can work for their welfare and earn and save enough money. This initiative will make India proud and help stand out in the crowd. But the biggest problem in India for business to bloom is the lack of government funds. Hence, the government can support by contributing to subsidies, grants, and incentives to start a business and help eliminate unemployment.

3. Poverty


A recent study shows India’s poverty level has declined by less than 3%. That means less than 3.44 crore people are still living under extreme population in 2024. Among this, 80% of the population is living in rural areas. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Orissa are among the poorest states in India. It has to be taken care of and needs immediate action. The poverty measure at the international poverty line is $2.15 a day, used to track the World Bank Extreme Poverty line. This figure shows how the World Bank aims to reduce the Extreme Poverty line to 3% by 2030. Sustainable Development Goals ( SDG) are still more ambitious and want all groups, countries, and religions to achieve a zero poverty line.

4. Poor Sanitation and Healthcare facilities

India indeed lacks sanitation care, especially in rural areas. India, as a democratic country, has failed to provide proper sanitation facilities to all its residents. Around 7 million people do not have access to proper toilets. People have to travel far off in search of toilets. All this forces the majority of the population to defecate in open areas. Many rural schools do not have toilets. Due to this, parents hesitate to send their girl child to school. As per a UN report, though, 12 million toilets have been built under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in the last five years. Still, 44% of the population defecates in the open.

50% of the villagers have no access to healthcare providers, and this results in instant death. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is around 34% per 1000 live births. Lack of food has caused around 50% of the babies to suffer from malnutrition. Even though India’s medical tourism brought in $2.8 billion in 2020, our healthcare system has been a disgrace to the Country.

5. Pollution and Water Crises

Pollution and Water Crises

Another Major Environmental problem in India is the depletion of natural resources, degradation of land, loss of biodiversity and pollution. Untreated sewage often leads to flies and mosquitos breeding in the sewage water and giving rise to hazardous diseases. Today, the holy rivers Ganga and Yamuna are populated rivers in India. Increased vehicular traffic and construction have led to pollution in urban cities. Bangalore, one of the metro cities in India, faced a water crisis during March 2024. The problem continues. We must take adequate measures against it. All this is detailed enough to take quick action as delay may cause major health problems in India.

6. Gender Equality

Gender Equality

Both men and women should get equal respect. It is among the everyday problems in India faced by its citizens. Females are vulnerable to travelling at night due to an increase in rape cases. Issues like domestic violence and pathetic image portrayal of women in Media are a few of the cases that need attention.

7. Corruption


Corruption is one such major social problem in India. Poverty problems, payment deterioration, debts, fake scam calls, unemployment and poor education are a few challenges. Corruption leads to inefficiency and is a waste of time. There is no single institute in government or private that remained untouched by corruption. So, it is best to take quick measures and eradicate corruption.

8. Child Labour

Child Labour

Another major social problem in India is Child Labour. Many small children under the age group of 14 work in Cracker manufacturing factories. Under Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code, Child labour is an act of criminal offence. Even after this section, these evil acts still prevail in society. Government officials must take note of it and see to it that child labour is discarded from the nation.

9. Poor Education System

Poor Education System

Education systems in India are based only on theoretical knowledge. India needs creative minds. Better infrastructure can improve education quality in Government schools. Experienced teachers can help impart better education. Intelligent youths are our nation’s assets, so they must be better cared for.

10. Inadequate Infrastructure

India is famous for its big potholes on the roads during the rainy season. All this leads to major road accidents. The credit goes to the bad infrastructure. Over the years, Infrastructures in India have not been able to cope with the population growth. Thus, problems such as power cuts, water shortages and traffic jams arise.


India is a nation of immense potential, but it has faced challenges that are hindering its progress. The good news is that India is a country that has tackled significant obstacles before. With the rise in awareness using modern technology and information, there is a sense of cooperation and realisation among people. By prioritising education, investing in good infrastructure, creating jobs and promoting gender equality, India can ensure a bright future for all its citizens.

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